How do the internet and server work?

How do the internet and server work?

Using the internet is one easy thing to do. Most of us don’t really know how the internet works. Just like the appliances we have in our homes, we used them without knowing how they work and their principle of operation. Using the internet is quite easy, but it becomes more interesting when you know how it works. In a few minutes, I will put you among the 10% of persons who really understand how the internet works.

A lot of persons sees the internet as a cloud filled with lots of stars, difficult to comprehend, trust me it’s not. The internet is just like a wire buried underneath the ground. It could be an optical fiber, copper, or the satellite connecting our gadgets such as mobile phones and laptops, and this I will talk about as we move on.

The internet is simply just a wire, very easy to picture right? As a wire, it makes connections with user’s computers. So they can communicate as a server, now what is a server?

But before then let’s understand how this information “ this article gets to reach you” or videos you watch online or probably download to keep. The data center which could be thousands of miles away from you for, where the content you are in search of is stored in the data center. How pieces of information reach your mobile phones or laptops is what understanding the internet is all about. 

How the internet and server work

A way to achieve these is through satellites placed up above the sky. During the search, a signal is being sent from the data center to the satellite through an antenna. From the satellite, a signal is then sent to you through another antenna close to you. So you can say that the satellite is acting like a middle man connecting you and the data center. Although this way of transmitting signals is not a good idea, why?.

From research, the satellite is placed about 22000 miles above the earth equator, so in other, for the requested data to reach you, it will have to travel about 3959 miles and this could result in a significant delay due to the distance traveled. So if the satellite isn’t the best way for data to be transmitted, then what’s the best.

I made mention earlier that the internet is just a wire connecting two computers together so they can communicate. Seeing the data center as computers connecting to user’s computers. Then transmission of information is best done with the help of a network of optical fiber cables connecting the data center with your devices. This could be your mobile phone or laptop.

Your device could be connected to the internet through a WiFi router or cellular data which is the normal data subscription we do, Just with these, your device will be connected to these networks of optical fiber cables.

How do the internet and server work?

IP(Internet Protocol )ADDRESS.

To be more specific, your requested information is being stored in a sold state device (SSD) in the data center which helps to access the internal memory of a server.

Now, what could be the challenges of using the optical fiber system network to transmit signals stored in the data center to its users. Before understanding this let’s first have a brief insight into an important concept which is the IP(Internet Protocol )ADDRESS.

Every device connected to the internet has an identification number. This identification number is what is known as an IP address. Just the way every user’s home has an address, the same way every device connected to the internet has too, sound interesting right?.

So with the help of the IP address, it becomes easy to identify which device is requesting a signal. You should know that the IP address of your devices is decided by your internet service provider. You can check it out on your device, it’s a very easy process and not rocket science. The server in the data center also has an IP address. Lets me take you through what’s a server is.

How do the internet and server work?

What is a server? 

What is a server
A server is a computer

A server is a computer that is being programmed to help users retrieve data/ information from the data center. Typically it provides services to other computers. Normally when a computer wants to view a web page from the internet, the server just acts as a middle guide to help retrieve this information from the data center.

The benefit of using a server help for your internet privacy. This enables you to source anonymously into the data center, because it helps to hide your IP address, using its own IP address.

Without the server, when you go visit the internet, automatically your IP address becomes visible for which anyone can trace which website you visited this morning or any moment, not a good one right? Because everyone literally wants his/her own privacy confined.

Now you see the importance of a server that helps you to attain and maintain your privacy. When you decided to visit the internet, only the IP address of the server is being seen. Another benefit includes speed, activity logging, save bandwidth, and even more.

The IP address help computers to find each other. Your computer at home is not called a server. This is because it’s not connected directly to the internet. Our devices which could be mobile phones or laptops are called clients. They are connected indirectly to the internet through an internal service provider called the server.

Whenever information is being transmitted, these pieces of information could be video, tweets, email, website, or any content through the internet. The computer breaks these pieces of information into small pieces known as a package. This is done to enhance easy transmission. When these pieces of information reach their destination, they are then arranged back into their initial forms.

Type of  servers 

  1. Registrar server 
  2. Redirect server
  3. Proxy server
  4. Location server
  5. Messaging server
  6. Accounting server  

Imagine you being in the office with your boss around, and you are busy searching on Facebook same time your boss is searching for content on Imagine your content just mistakenly lot track and display on your boss’s computer screen due to interference. This is quite embarrassing right?.

The solution to this problem is IP addresses and routers. Everything connected to the internet has an IP address. These routers help your information to find its way to your device without interruption in the path.

When it comes to IP addresses, it becomes difficult for someone like me. I really don’t know about you but I find it difficult to comprehend algebraic sequence. So it’s difficult to store lots of IP addresses offhand, so in solving this domain names “” are used which corresponds to its IP address, domain names like,,, or other popular websites you know. Which are very easy for us to remember compared to their IP addresses in numerical forms.

The server has the ability to store multiple web addresses for which its user can get access to by knowing the IP address or domain name of the requested website or content.

It’s very common that we users get access to a website using their domain name which corresponds to it’s IP address. Now the question is “how does the internet get IP addresses corresponding to domain names?”.

IP addresses corresponding to domain names

The internet finds this possible by using what is called DNS ( domain name server). Just like a phone book where you write down a person’s name and contact just in case you forget. The DNS provides the same services to the internet just like your phone book.

So the whole process, that is when the user searches for a domain name, the domain name is being sent to the DNS server to get the corresponding IP address. After getting the IP address, the request is then sent to the data center to retrieve the information requested from the data center in digital format.

This is done through optical fiber cables in the form of a light pulse. The optical fiber cables act as the backbone for the internet. This helps to transmit the information from the data center in the form of light to your home router. This then helps to convert the light signals into electrical signals then through an internet cable.

The electrical signals are then transmitted to your computers or any device connected with the internet cable. However when using cellular data to access the internet which is the normal data subscription for those of us who aren’t using routers.

In this form, the signals are first sent to a cell tower. Then assists in converting these light signals into the electromagnetic wave for which our phones, laptops or any gadgets using this means of accessing the internet can receive information. 

How do the internet and server work: ICANN

Since the internet is a global network, an institute called ICANN ( internet cooperation for assigning names and numbers) helps to manage these IP addresses and domain names. They are located in the USA. 

This is simply how the internet works. Thanks for coming around and don’t forget to check out the telecommunication category under academics to learn more about telecommunication.

Follow me
Latest posts by Hboiacademy (see all)